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    Argument Terms*
     
  •  Ethos: Argument based on ethical appeal.
  •  Logos: Argument based on logical appeal.
  •  Pathos: Argument based on emotional appeal.
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    Concession:
    Recognizing the merit of a specific point or two of a counter argument.


    Conclusion:
    The key assertion/claim/thesis for which all the premises support.


    Counter argument:
    The opposite position toward a writer's arguments.


    Issue:
    Topic of concern or controversy.


    Premises:
    The reasons which support the conclusion.
    • Premise #1: If Minneapolis doesn't build a stadium, the Twins may leave.
    • Premise #2: Minneapolis, a major city, deserves a baseball team.
    • Premise #3: If children don't have baseball, they lose out on good memories.
    • Conclusion: Minneapolis should build a downtown stadium.


    Syllogisms:
    The classic format for deductive reasoning is the syllogism, which consistsof a series of carefully limited premises, pursued to a circumscribed conclusion.
    Example:
    • All Major League Baseball teams improve the quality of life in the their home cities.
    • Minneapolis is the home city to the Minnesota Twins.
    • Therefore, the quality of life in Minneapolis is better than it would be if the Twins didn't play there.

    Question-at-issue:
    A particular aspect of the issue under consideration.

    Example:
    Should affirmative action play a role in university admission?
        (The elaborated answer is the writer's thesis.)


    Reasoning:
    The logical form of an argument (inductive, deductive, etc.).

    Refutation:
    After presenting a counter argument or making a concession to a counter argument (through paraphrase or summary), the writer explains why a certain point is false, misleading, irrelevant, or weak.

    Support:
    The premises which defend a claim/conclusion/thesis.


    Thesis:
    The writer's main, overall conclusion regarding a specific question-at-issue/debate, which is supported by premises and sub-claims. For a problem/solution argument form, it is the clear proposed solution.

    *Based on information taken from Writing Logically, Thinking Critically by Sheila Cooper and Rosemary Patton.